Abstract. This document updates and expands the initial Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Fever and Neutropenia Guideline that. Risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) should be systematically assessed (in consultation with infectious disease specialists as needed), including. Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a serious complication of cancer chemotherapy that The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), National.

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Selected hospitalized patients who meet criteria for being at febriile risk may be transitioned to the outpatient setting to receive either IV or oral antibiotics, as long as adequate daily follow-up is ensured B-III.

In trials of posaconazole prophylaxis for high-risk patients, in which the major goal was mold prevention, low rates of invasive candidiasis were observed; by inference, posaconazole is a reasonable recommendation for Candida prophylaxis in the high risk group []. Plants and dried or fresh flowers should not be allowed in the rooms of hospitalized neutropenic patients B-III.

Quantitative relationships between circulating leukocytes and infection in patients with acute leukemia. They are not recommended for low-risk patients. Unexplained persistent fever in a patient whose condition is otherwise stable rarely requires an empirical change to the initial antibiotic regimen. Identification of a clinically or microbiologically documented infection should guide any changes to the initial empirical antibiotic regimen.

Practice Guidelines

Reduction in vancomycin consumption in patients with fever and neutropenia. If societal costs are considered, the economic impact of fever and neutropenia becomes more apparent, and there may be recognition of greater cost-saving benefits of CSFs [ ].

However, because of the heterogenicity of the patient populations studied, some controversy remains regarding precisely which patient groups are the most appropriate candidates for fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. Aminoglycoside monotherapy should not be used for either empirical coverage or for bacteremia during neutropenia because of the rapid emergence of microbial resistance to this class of agents.

Outpatient treatment of fever and neutropenia for low risk pediatric cancer patients. Antifungal therapy was given to fewer patients in the preemptive arm than in the empirical therapy arm.


IDSA GUIDELINES Bundle (free trial)

CLABSI due to any pathogen that is complicated by disseminated or deep infection requires 4—6 weeks of antimicrobial therapy [ ]. Immunosuppressed patients and those who have been hospitalized or received antibiotics within the preceding 90 days are considered to be among those at high risk for developing pneumonia with multidrug-resistant pathogens. Determinants of vancomycin resistance and mortality rates in enterococcal bacteremia. What is the role of antiviral prophylaxis and how are respiratory viruses diagnosed and managed in the neutropenic patient?

Because staphylococci and microaerophilic viridans group streptococci are encountered among fluoroquinolone prophylaxis recipients, some authorities have advocated adding a gram-positive agent to the prophylactic regimen [ ].

Use of axillary temperatures is discouraged, because they may not accurately reflect core body temperature. This survival advantage had not been shown in previous meta-analyses [ —— ]. Many clinicians begin prophylaxis treatment with the first day of cytotoxic therapy or the day following administration of the last dose of chemotherapy, and they stop at the termination of the neutropenic period or, for those patients who develop fever, at the initiation of empirical antibiotic therapy.

Chest radiography may be indicated if there are any signs and symptoms of respiratory infection; this is to rule out pneumonia, which can progress rapidly in patients with FN. The issa of a single serum test is extremely low, and a single negative result should not be used to rule out the diagnosis of an invasive fungal infection.

To decrease the risk for mechanical trauma and infection of oral mucosa, fixed orthodontic appliances and space maintainers should not be worn during neutropenia until mucositis resolves. As with vancomycin, newer gram-positive agents, such as linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, tigecycline, televancin, or daptomycin, have no proven role in routine empirical coverage.

Guidelines in the Management of Febrile Neutropenia for Clinical Practice

There are insufficient data upon which to base a specific empirical antifungal choice for patients already meutropenia mold-active prophylaxis, but a switch to an IV anti-mold agent within a different antifungal class seems prudent.


In neuttopenia, the use of oral antibiotics may be neutropeia only for patients who fulfill clear criteria for being at low-risk for complications during neutropenia, as defined above [ 4244—45 ]. A systematic strategy for monitoring the development of fluoroquinolone resistance among gram-negative bacilli is beutropenia A-II. Patients allergic to penicillin may febri,e given cephalosporin, but either ciprofloxacin and clindamycin or aztreonam and vancomycin are recommended in cases of immediate hypersensitivity.

An air-crescent sign is insensitive and generally appears late, if at all [ ]. Gastrointestinal mucositis, ceftazidime use, and prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin are important risk factors for developing serious viridans streptococci bacteremia during neutropenia [ ].

In 2 centers, discontinuing routine fluoroquinolone prophylaxis among patients with hematologic malignancy led to prompt reductions in bacterial resistance rates without a significant impact on infection-related morbidity [].

Individual cancer centers have reported increasing rates of resistance related to broad use of fluoroquinolones [,]. Carefully selected febrile adult neutropenic patients at low risk for complications during neutropenia may be treated initially with oral broad-spectrum antibiotics [ 222—3442—4345]. These tests should be done at least every 3 days during the course of intensive antibiotic therapy. However, a definitive clinical trial to evaluate its efficacy has not been performed [ ].

However, there are insufficient neutropeniw to determine which antifungal agent is most appropriate. Influenza virus infection should be treated with neuraminidase inhibitors if the infecting strain is susceptible A-II.

Rectal temperature measurements and rectal examinations are avoided during neutropenia to prevent colonizing gut organisms from entering the surrounding mucosa and soft neutropena. Afebrile neutropenic patients who have new signs or symptoms suggestive of infection should be evaluated and treated as high-risk patients B-III.