Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith proposed the term cognitive dissonance which is Every individual has his or her Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. ( ). The following article by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith is the classic study on Reprinted from Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, , 58, . Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith () conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study.

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Most S s responded by saying something like “Oh, no, it’s really very interesting. Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments. Finally, many of the studies supporting the theory of cognitive dissonance have low ecological validity. Because these participants did not make a decision, they did not ffstinger any dissonance to reduce.

Actually this finding by Kelman is consistent with the theory we will outline below but, for a number of reasons is not conclusive. Acta Psychologica15, The girl, an undergraduate hired for this role, said little until the Fsstinger made some positive remarks about the experiment and then said that she was surprised because a friend of hers had taken the experiment the week before and had told her that it was boring and that she ought to try to get calrsmith of it.

When the interview was over, the interviewer brought the S back to the experimental room where the E was waiting together with the girl who had posed as the waiting S. Festinger and Carlsmith’s study now began to treat the 71 subjects in different ways such festlnger to investigate the cognitive consequences of induced compliance to see festimger there would be any evidence of Cognitive Dissonance, where the student concerned was psychologically di-stressed between his actual views and the role he found himself taking on in compliance with the performance of the tasks set by the experimenter.

Recently Festinger proposed a theory concerning cognitive dissonance from which come a number of derivations about opinion change following forced compliance.


You can use it freely with some kind of linkand we’re also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution.

In short, when an S was induced, by offer of reward, to say something contrary to his private opinion, this private opinion tended to change so as to correspond more closely with what he had said. In this course, students are required to spend a certain number of hours as subjects S s in experiments.

Cognitive Dissonance

The interviewer said yes, the E shook hands with the Ssaid good-bye, and left. If the results of our experiment are to be taken as strong corroboration of the theory of cognitive dissonance, this possible alternative explanation must be dealt with. There is also some ambiguity i. In the control condition, of course, the girl was not there. Views Read Edit View history. An internet resource developed by Christopher D.

The experimental condition involved telling the subject before the experiment started that it would be fun, while the control condition did not set any expectations for the task. In Festinger and Carlsmith’s classic study, undergraduate students of Introductory Psychology at Stanford University were asked, during the first week of the course, to take part of a series of experiments.

In all conditions, they then heard a very boring discussion about sex in lower animals. These made them question what the real purpose of the study is. There are, after all, other ways in which the experimentally created dissonance could be reduced.

This method of reducing dissonance is known as ‘effort justification. Efstinger you took the job you would miss your loved ones; if you turned the job down, you would pine for the beautiful streams, mountains, and valleys.

This prediction has been tested experimentally:. Reduce the importance of the cognitions i. Since these derivations are stated in detail by FestingerCh.

Forced compliance theory – Wikipedia

It has received widespread attention after recently being published in an academic journal. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

A rating of how persuasive and convincing the S was in what he said and the way in which he said it. It is clear from examining the table that, in all cases, the Twenty Dollar condition is efstinger higher The differences are small, however, and only on the rating of “amount of time” does the difference between the two conditions even approach significance.


Retrieved Acrlsmith 21, from Explorable. Festinger and Carlsmith’s study focussed its attention on festinnger male students who participated in an experiment allegedly dealing with “Measures of Performance. The subject was then told that the experimenter ‘thought’ that the next “Group B” subject actually another associate of the experimenter was female and was waiting to be given the positive introduction to the tasks ahead.

In the ‘severe embarrassment’ condition, they had to read aloud obscene words and a very explicit sexual passage.

In other words, he could tell himself that a short life filled with smoking and sensual pleasures is better than a long life devoid of such joys. These was another group of subjects – “Group B”, however, who were introduced to the tasks by an associate of fesringer experimenter. The greater the reward offered beyond what was necessary to elicit the behavior the smaller was calsmith effect.

Brehm was the first to investigate the relationship between dissonance and decision-making.

In Festinger and Carlsmith’s experiment, 11 of the 71 responses were considered invalid for a couple of reasons. Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. At the close of the interview the S was asked fwstinger he thought the experiment was about and, following this, was asked directly whether or not he was suspicious of anything and, if so, what he was suspicious of.

Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-expertswithout removing the technical details.

Aim Festinger and Carlsmith investigated if making people perform a dull task would create cognitive dissonance through forced compliance behavior. Students were 19959 to cooperate in these interviews by being completely and honest.