Self-anchoring category rating scales seem to fulfill this requirement, since satisfaction is also referred to in the literature as the Self-Anchoring Striving Scale . Scales by Ed Diener. Joseph Smiley Distinguished Professor of Psychology, Emeritus, University of Illinois., Source: Hadley Cantril’s Self-Anchoring Striving. negative feelings); Brief Psychological Well-Being Scale; Comprehensive Psychological Well-Being Scale; Cantril’s Self-Anchoring Striving Scale (Ladder).

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The satisfaction with life scale. These questions collect information on a number of measures capturing positive and negative affect experienced yesterday.

The results in terms of the number of factors emerging remain quite similar, with one evaluative and two experienced factors when using the ELSA response scale, though it is worthwhile noticing that the ONS anxiety measure loads positively on the negative experienced factors rather than on the evaluative factor. As noted in Sect. Perhaps most widely used among the latter is the Satisfaction with Life Scale SWLSwhich measures life satisfaction by asking respondents to report their level of agreement with five statements on a seven-point response scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Diener ; Diener et al.

The results confirm that evaluative and experienced well-being are distinct concepts.

Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being

Overall, how happy did you feel yesterday? Virtually all other categories are jointly significant. The reference category for age consists of respondents over Yesterday, did you feel angry? The pattern of human concerns. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology.

Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being

Living, and thinking about it: Examining the association between daily weather conditions and life satisfaction judgments. The presence of children self-anvhoring the household does not seem to consistently affect the well-being of the respondent, though as pointed out by Deaton and Stonethis could be a function of controlling for factors associated with having children, such as being married, richer, and healthier.


What explains the gender gap in financial literacy? The table shows p values of the test statistics corresponding to the null hypothesis for each pair of models. Accordingly, in recent decades, research interest has been rising to find broader measures strivkng well-being to be used to monitor societal progress and evaluate policy.

Cantril’s Self-Anchoring Ladder

Experiment We fielded two waves of the ALP where we administered four evaluative well-being measures and three sets of experienced well-being measures. Are Europeans and Americans different? To ecale contamination of responses within a wave, respondents answer only one set of experienced well-being measures in each wave, randomly assigned.

Subjective well – being: Would you like to have more days just like yesterday? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being. Now, please think about yesterday, from the morning until the end of the day. Well-being over time in Britain and the USA. Overall, a theme emerges of evaluative measures having different properties than experienced well-being measures. When evaluating the reliability of evaluative measurements over time, the SWLS displays an estimated reliability—that is, the correlation across waves—of about 0.

Cantril’s Self-Anchoring Ladder

Ecological momentary assessment in behavioral medicine. Finally, the last five rows show the p values of strlving significance tests xantril each category of characteristics. We find that when conducting a factor analysis on both the Gallup and the HWB12 items, evaluative measures form a distinct factor cantrli the experienced measures. Does economic growth improve the human lot? We also confirm prior findings Kim and Moen of a strong positive relation between being retired and subjective well-being.

Oxford University Press; Our second group of experienced questions is based on the Gallup-Healthways well-being index. We observe that self-reported health—here coded as 1 being Excellent, and 5 being Poor so that a negative sign represents a higher level of health—is strongly correlated with well-being, which corresponds to general cantrril in the literature Diener et al.


So from the viewpoint of affecting the current findings regarding the effects of socio-economic and demographic variables, omitting major life events does not seem to matter very much.

The relation between experienced well-being and personal circumstances and demographics should not depend on whether we use a binary response scale, a five-point response scale, or a seven-point response scale. Although two of the ONS—ELSA questions are experienced well-being questions, in our experiment stgiving are included in the evaluative measures group, as we seek to maintain a questionnaire structure as close to the original ONS questionnaire as possible.

Manski CF, Molinari F.

Though the response time to single global life satisfaction questions is lower than for multi-item measures, as one would expect, the latter appears to be more reliable. Did you experience happiness during a lot of the day yesterday? Did you experience depression during a lot of the day cqntril A number of preliminary conclusions emerge. Comparing sample representativeness atriving response quality. Happiness is everything, or is it? What day of the week was it yesterday? The extended satisfaction with life scale: In general, it appears that the relation between experienced measures and demographics is much weaker than between evaluative measures and demographics.